Skip to main content


Effects of Colonization in India

Some people still have the illusion that the British Raj was not all that bad. But in reality is that the British Colonial rule as against the interests of the common people of the Indian sub-continent and it destroyed the education system, economy, ancient monuments and livelihood of the people. One can trace the education system in India to third century B.C. Ancient days, the sages and scholars imparted education orally. After the development of letters it took the form of writing. Palm leaves and bark of trees were used for education. Temples and community centers often took the role of schools. When Buddhism spread in India , education became available to everyone and this led to the establishment of some world famous educational institutions Nalanda, Vikramshila and Takshashila. These educational institutes in fact arose from the monasteries. History has taken special care to give Nalanda University , which flourished from the fifth to 13th century AD, full credit for its e

Partition of India

Geographical region in ancient India is divided into multiple countries now. Sri Lanka ( Ceylon ) was part of the South Indian kingdoms and part of the Madras presidency of British India . In 1798 it become a separate crown colony and granted independence on February 4, 1948 . Myanmar (old Burma ) was annexed by the British in 1826 and governed as part of the British Indian administration until 1937. There after directly administrated by the British until it granted independence on January 4, 1948 . The countries Nepal and Bhutan had singed treaties with the British designating them as independent states and they were never a part of British India . End of British Raj led to the creation of Dominion of Pakistan (now Islamic Republic of Pakistan) on August 14, 1947 and Union of India (now Republic of India ) on August 15, 1947 . The actual division between the two new dominions was done according to what has come to be known as the Mountbatten Plan . The border between

Towards Independence

After many years of struggle and resolutions, Indian National Congress finally passed a resolution which asks for complete independence for India . On August 8, 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee which demands complete independence from Britain . It proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched. At Gowalia Tank, Bombay , Gandhi urged Indians to follow non-violent civil disobedience. He told the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. His call found support among a large number of Indians. It also found support among Indian revolutionaries who were not necessarily agree to Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence. Within the Indian independence movement there was a concept of an armed force fighting its way into India to overthrow the British Raj. During the Second World War, this plan found revival, with a number

The Gandhian Movement

India ’s struggle for swaraj continues under the leadership of Gandhi, commonly known as "Mahatma" (or Great Soul). He had been educated in Britain he didn’t have much success as a lawyer while he was in India . He had accepted an invitation in 1893 to represent indentured Indian laborers in South Africa . He stayed on for more than twenty years and been a prominent leader of the anti-Apartheid movement. He had been a vocal opponent of basic discrimination and abusive labor treatment as well as suppressive police control. He returned to India in 1915 and joins the national movement. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a veteran Congressman and Indian leader became Gandhi's mentor. Gandhi's ideas and strategies of nonviolent civil disobedience (Satyagraha) appeared impractical to many educated Indians at the beginning. Observers realized Gandhi's political potential when he used the Satyagraha during the anti-Rowlett Acts protests in Punjab . In 1920, under Gandhi's l

Swaraj And Swadeshi

The first nationalistic sentiment among the members of the Indian National Congress was to representation in the government bodies. Dadabhai Naoroji successfully contested in an election and become the first Indian member in the British House of Commons. Aware of the economic devastation that British rule had brought on the country, India 's broad masses were responding eagerly to the nationalist message. But the nationalist movement was also becoming exceedingly divided between two poles representing radically different currents and tendencies. Whereas one side attempted to restrict the national movement to a struggle for political reforms, the other side sees the aspirations of the general public and called for the complete liberation from colonial rule. Bal Gangadhar Tilak eloquently and succinctly summarized the sentiments of the new and increasingly militant national movement. He spoke of British rule as having ruined trade, caused the collapse of industry, and destroyed

Rise of Indian Nationalism

In India , the decades after the First War for Independence (1857) were a period of growing political awareness, manifestation of public opinion, and emergence of leadership at national and provincial levels. Gloomy economic uncertainties created by British colonial rule and the limited opportunities that awaited for the increasing number of western-educated graduates began to dominate the rhetoric of leaders who had begun to think of themselves as a nation despite differences along the lines of region, religion, language, and caste. Dadabhai Naoroji formed East India Association in 1867, and Surendranath Banerjee founded Indian National Association in 1876. Indian National Congress is formed in 1885 in a meeting in Bombay attended by seventy-three Indian delegates. The delegates were mostly members of the upwardly mobile and successful Western-educated provincial elites, engaged in professions such as law, teaching, and journalism. They had acquired political experience from regio

History of India - The British Raj

British India or British Raj is the term used to refer to the period of direct British imperial rule of the Indian Subcontinent which included the present-day India , Myanmar , Bangladesh and Pakistan from 1858 to 1947. Much of the territory under British control during this time was not directly ruled by the British, but was nominally independent Princely States which were directly under the rule of the Maharajas, Rajas, Thakurs and Nawabs who entered into treaties as sovereigns with the British monarch as their feudal superior. The British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown in 1858. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India", Queen Victoria promised equal treatment under British law, which never materialized. Many existing economic and revenue policies remained virtually unchanged under British Raj. But several administrative modifications were introduced