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Showing posts with the label Science

Science of Aging

The science of aging seeks to understand the biological processes that underlie the changes we experience as we get older. There are many different theories about why we age, but some of the most popular are the free radical theory, the telomere theory and the epigenetic theory. The free radical theory Free radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron, making them highly reactive and unstable. They arise naturally in our bodies during activities like metabolism and energy production. While some free radicals play beneficial roles like signaling and defending against pathogens, the majority are harmful. These rogue molecules react with other molecules in our cells, stealing electrons to stabilize themselves. This "stealing" process can damage proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to various consequences like: Oxidative stress: This refers to the imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants (molecules that neutralize them). Chronic oxidative stress can damage cell str

Astronomy in Ancient India

Early cultures identified celestial objects with gods and spirits. They related these objects and their movements to predict things like rain, drought, seasons, and tides. The movements of Sun and Moon are used in calendars to measure the day, month and year. It is important to agricultural societies as they need to know the time to plant and harvest. Ancient societies also believed that the position of some celestial bodies have an impact on the human beings. The astronomy and the astrology of India are based upon the stars and the time it takes to make one full orbit around the Sun, relative to the stars. The earliest references to astronomy are found in the Vedas which are dated around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. By 500 AD, ancient Indian astronomy has emerged as an important part of Indian studies and its affect is also seen in several treatises of that period. In some instances, astronomical principles were borrowed to explain matters, pertaining to astrology, like casting of a ho

Physics in Ancient India

Indians in the Vedic era classified the material world into five basic elements: earth, fire, air, water and ether/space. From the 6th century BC, they formulated systematic atomic theories, beginning with Kanada and Pakudha Katyayana. Indian atomists believed that an atom could be one of up to 9 elements, with each element having up to 24 properties. They developed detailed theories of how atoms could combine, react, vibrate, move and perform other actions, as well as elaborate theories of how atoms can form binary molecules that combine further to form larger molecules, and how particles first combine in pairs, and then group into trios of pairs, which are the smallest visible units of matter. This parallels with the structure of modern atomic theory, in which pairs or triplets of supposedly fundamental quarks combine to create most typical forms of matter. In the late Vedic era(9th–6th century BC), the astronomer Yajnavalkya, in his Shatapatha Brahmana , referred to an early conc